The main cause of concrete degradation is the carbonation of the material. The carbon dioxide and other aggressive agents, which are present in the atmosphere, penetrate into the artifact causing the decrease of the pH, thus reducing the natural protection of the reinforcement bars. Armor elements which are no longer protected, will surely oxidize. The formation of rust causes an increase in volume which leads to breakage of the cover and subsequent detachment.
1. Prepare the support through the complete removal or demolition of all the degraded or detached concrete, using manual or mechanical means.
2. Clean all the surfaces with a water pump-jet, removing dust and eventual detached parts.
3. After a proper and deep cleaning process of the steel reinforcement bars (not of the white), apply on them the mono-component passivating grout LAMPOPRIMER P613.
4. Restoration of the missing volume with the anti-shrinkage, thixotropic, reinforced mortar LAMPOTIX K100. For this passage you will need a reverse trowel to add fresh coats on fresh coats, applying also the grout made with the more liquid LAMPOTIX K100.
5. As an alternative for the point 4, in case you don't have enough time, where the seasonal temperatures allow it, use the thixotropic, reinforced, modified mortar, with a medium-quick setting LAMPOBETON K200, or with a quick setting LAMPOFAST K633/F.
6. Smooth the entire surface with the anti-shrinkage smoothing mortar, anti-carbonation, high-setting LAMPOGRIP R900, finished with a spongy trowel.
7. As an alternative for the point 4, 5 and 6, in case the ruined concrete shows cracks from 3 to 10 mm, restorate the missing volumes with thixotropic, reinforced extra quick-setting mortar TENACITE. In case you have to smooth the surface, go on with the same TENACITE until reaching the desired effect.
8. For a final and complete protection and decoration of the concrete, apply on all surfaces the anti-carbonation protective coat, anti-mould, anti-algae PROCTILCEMENTO C, applied with a brush or roller in two or more coats with an average use of 0,10 l/m2 for each coat.